Grade 6 Module 4: Expressions and Equations
In Module 4, Expressions and Equations, students extend their arithmetic work to include using letters to represent numbers in order to understand that letters are simply "stand-ins" for numbers and that arithmetic is carried out exactly as it is with numbers. Students explore operations in terms of verbal expressions and determine that arithmetic properties hold true with expressions because nothing has changed—they are still doing arithmetic with numbers. Students determine that letters are used to represent specific but unknown numbers and are used to make statements or identities that are true for all numbers or a range of numbers. They understand the relationships of operations and use them to generate equivalent expressions, ultimately extending arithmetic properties from manipulating numbers to manipulating expressions. Students read, write and evaluate expressions in order to develop and evaluate formulas. From there, they move to the study of true and false number sentences, where students conclude that solving an equation is the process of determining the number(s) that, when substituted for the variable, result in a true sentence. They conclude the module using arithmetic properties, identities, bar models, and finally algebra to solve one-step, two-step, and multi-step equations.